21 septembre 2017 par H. Ouarnoughi : Autonomic VM placement on hybrid storage system in IaaS cloud
IaaS cloud providers offer virtualized resources (CPU, storage, and network) as Virtual Machines (VM). The growth and highly competitive nature of this economy has compelled them to optimize the use of their data centers, in order to offer attractive services at a lower cost. In addition to investments related to infrastructure purchase and cost of use, energy efficiency is a major point of expenditure (2\% of world consumption) and is constantly increasing. Its control represents a vital opportunity. From a technical point of view, the control of energy consumption is mainly based on consolidation approaches. These approaches, which exclusively take into account the CPU use of physical machines (PM) for the VM’s placement, present however many drawbacks. Indeed, recent studies have shown that storage systems and disk I/O represent a significant part of the data center energy consumption (between 14% and 40%).
In this thesis we propose a new autonomic model for VM placement optimization based on MAPE-K (Monitor, Analyze, Plan, Execute, Knowledge) whereby in addition to CPU, VM I/O and related storage systems are considered. Our first contribution proposes a multilevel VM I/O tracer which overcomes the limitations of existing I/O monitoring tools. In the Analyze step, the collected I/O traces are introduced in a cost model which takes into account the VM I/O profile, the storage system characteristics, and the cloud environment constraints. We also analyze the complementarity between the two main storage classes, resulting in a hybrid storage model exploiting the advantages of each. Indeed, Hard Disk Drives (HDD) represent energy-intensive and inefficient devices compared to compute units. However, their low cost per gigabyte and their long lifetime may constitute positive arguments. Unlike HDD, flash-based Solid-State Disks (SSD) are more efficient and consume less power, but their high cost per gigabyte and their short lifetime (compared to HDD) represent major constraints.
The Plan phase has initially resulted in an extension of CloudSim to take into account VM I/O, the hybrid nature of the storage system, as well as the implementation of the previously proposed cost model. Secondly, we proposed several heuristics based on our cost model, integrated and evaluated using CloudSim. Finally, we showed that our contribution improves existing approaches of VM placement optimization by a factor of three.